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USB and Wireless Desktop Speakers

Most of the computers these days come with low budget desktop speakers which produce a very low audio quality, which is why people buy themselves better pc sound for higher quality sound to replace the cheap ones.

There are a lot of different pc sound nowadays, so I am going to tell you the difference between USB speakers and wireless speakers.

USB desktop ssouns: USB sound are one of the top sellers when it comes to USB speakers. The USB are powered by the USB port giving 5 volts at 200 milliamps and the power goes through the USB cable.

These USB desktop speakers have a lot of different features here are a few of them; the power and sound can be used while it uses the audio output jack for something else, Can connect to a CD player, Can be used on laptops, MP3 players and for desktop speakers.

The USB speakers have a lot of advantages; The speakers do not require a big AC adapter or outlet, they are well structured, portable, self powered and is very easy to install, if you buy top brand names you will get a quality audio out of it, their frequency response time are faster and can go to greater volumes.

There are also a few disadvantages; The USB speakers are going to use up more resources because it processes the data through the USB cable and if you have a CD player make sure it supports digital audio playback.

Wireless speakers: wireless desktop speakers are a great invention because it is easy to use wire free plus it works on laptops and computers, it is also very popular in comparison to the USB speakers.

Here is a few advantages; you can stream wireless audio directly from the net, enjoy the multimedia entertainment, you can play all the songs on your computer and place the speakers at another location in your home, you can add these Wireless speakers to your already owned stereo system, no router is required and there is no need to even buy a Hi-Fi the Wireless desktop speakers will more than satisfy you.

With these wireless desktop speakers you can even download you own MP3, midi’s, iTunes and listen to it in any location in your home, all you need is a computer with windows media player to play the songs and enjoy The Wireless desktop speakers come with a transmitter and a receiver, the transmitter is plugged in a USB slot and it sends the signals to the receiver which is in the speakers.

Whether you want USB speakers or wireless speakers the choice is all yours, both the USB speakers and the wireless speakers are a good choice and not either one of them will let you down, it now only depends on you to find the right desktop speakers for your own entertainment and the entertainment of your friends or family.

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Patents For Inventors – Your Questions Answered

Are you confused about what a patent is and whether you should get one? This is a primer
For beginning inventors that answers your most commonly asked questions.

1) What is a patent?

A patent is a form of intellectual property which rewards persons who invent a
New and non-obvious :

  • Process or method;
  • Machine;
  • Article of manufacture; Egypt
  • Composition of matter.

In return for completely disclosing the invention including how to practice the
Invention, a legal monopoly on the invention is granted to the inventor (s)
For a specific period of time.

That legal monopoly is the right for the inventor (s) to exclude other
Persons and businesses from:

  • Making;
  • Using;
  • Offering for sale or selling; Egypt
  • Importing;

The invention in the United States.

2) What is "patent pending"?

Once a patent application is prepared and filed and prior to issuance of a patent, the
Invention can be marked "patent pending" or "patent
Applied for " .

While these have no legal significance and grant the inventor (s) no legal rights, the
Design tends to discourage other persons or businesses from copying the invention
Since a patent might issue on the invention granting the legal monopoly to the
Inventor (s).

3) Are there different types of patents?

There are two types of patents that are typically of interest to inventors,
Design patents and utility patents .

A design patent protects the "aesthetics" or the
"Appearance" of the invention and is a much more limited legal
Monopoly than utility patents which protect the "function" of
The invention.

Therefore, utility patents are desirable over design patents where possible, though an
Invention can be protected by both design and utility patents.

4) How long do patents provide legal protection for the inventor?

The period of time for which the legal monopoly is granted for a utility patent is 20
Years from the filing date of a utility patent application, however, the legal rights
Do not begin until the patent issues.

The period of time for which the legal monopoly is granted for a design patent is 14
Years from the issue date.

5) What are maintenance fees?

Utility patents require the payment of maintenance fees 3.5, 7.5, and 11.5 years
Following issue to maintain the patent in force. Design patents require no
Maintenance fees to maintain the patent in force.

6) Should I keep my invention secret?

The inventor (s) should be careful to maintain their invention secret until the
Advice of a competent licensed patent attorney or patent agent is thought.

That is because many foreign countries in which the inventor (s) may decide to seek
Patent protection there is an "absolute novelty"
Requirement.

This means that if the invention is "publicly disclosed" (ie
Disclosed to people in a non-confidential manner) prior to the "effective
Filing date " in that country, then the validity of any patent which would
Potentially issue on the invention in that country could be challenged later.

7) What is the International Treaty, also called the Paris Convention?

Many countries are members of the International Treaty, also called the Paris
Convention.

These countries allow inventor (s) to claim priority based on the filing date of the
First filed patent application in a member country, provided a patent application is
Filed in the member country within 1 year of such first filed patent application
(Within 6 months for design patent applications).

The United States is a member of the International Convention so as to grant such
Priority based on a foreign patent application.

8) Are there time limits in which to file a patent application at the US Patent
Office?

The inventor (s) must file a United States Patent Application within 1 year (if
Patent protection is desired in the United States) of the earlier of :

  • Making an offer to sell the invention (even if the offer is not accepted and sometimes even when the invention is not yet manufactured or otherwise available);
  • Use of the invention in public (eg using the invention at work or in public on the street corner); Egypt
  • Or putting the invention in a printed publication which is circulated (eg a sales brochure, catalog, or a web site).

These are called "statutory bars" and if the year period
Expires without filing the United States Patent Application, the inventor (s) are not
Allowed to file a patent application in the United States.

Foreign priority (discussed above) or the priority of a provisional patent application
(Discussed below) can be used to predate the expiration of the 1 year period if
Applicable.

9) What is a provisional patent application?

A provisional patent application can be filed in the United States which provides a
Disclosure (description) of the invention, but which does not have the formal
Requirements of a utility patent application.

Priority can be claimed for a utility patent application (but not a design patent
Application) and foreign patent applications in countries which are members of the
International Convention if filed within 1 year of the filing date of the provisional
Patent application.

The bottom line , timely consult a competent patent attorney or patent agent
To discuss the details of protecting your invention!

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The Endocrine System: The Music of the Body

The endocrine system enables the body to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium. It does so by causing adjustments in the normal cellular functions, processes and rhythms so they operate in harmony. Music is the organized rhythmic harmonic sounds that creatures consciously produce. They perceive it, appreciate it and respond to it. On the strength of these truths, the endocrine system is the music of the body. And the orchestra plays on.

The endocrine system is a symphony of glands and the hormones that produce and release into the bloodstream. The orchestra is the sum total of the activities of the endocrine system and the cells, tissues and organs it effects. And the orchestra plays on.

The theater is the body – with its skeletal frame – and walls and roof of skin, muscle, sinews, and other connective tissue in between. The price of admission is birth. The performance is continuous and non-stop – for the orchestra plays on.

The players on instruments are the endocrine glands themselves. Their music is the hormones they secrete. The maestro of this biological orchestra is the hypothalamus of the brain. Its numerous receptors are the ears sensing the musical flow. Its many transmitted electrical and hormonal cues control the production and release of hormones by the glands much like the movements of the conductor direct the actions of the players on instruments. The hormones in turn evoke responses by the cells, tissues, and oranges much like music induces emotional responses in its listeners. And the orchestra plays on.

Endocrine glands also respond to conditions within the body much like players on instruments respond to conditions within the theater. It may be applause, lack of it, lighting, temperature, etc. Positive conditions heighten the performance and negative conditions might dampen it. Similar conditions in the body which disturb the body's equilibrium cause changes in the secretion of hormones affected by those conditions. Some examples are an abnormal blood sugar level, pregnancy, fluid deficiency, mineral imbalance, etc.

The audience of this symphony is the cells, tissues and organs of the body that respond to the hormones. The emotional responses of the audience are the changes in the bodily functions and processes in response to the hormones. The ears of the audience which govern the discrimination and appreciation of the overtones and harmonics of the symphony are the receptors on the cells and tissues. For it is the stimulation of those receptors by the hormones which evoke biological responses much like the music of an orchestra provokes emotional responses in its listeners. And the orchestra plays on.

The metaphor ends though with the realization that we do not carefully produce or orchestrate the music of our nonstop silent biological symphony. Neither do we consciously service it or maintain it. But yet, the orchestra plays on.

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3 Advantages Of Owning A Synthetic Home Putting Green

A home putting green is quite useful. It'll make your game better without having the need to visit the golf course regularly. It also enables you to invite friends over for a round of mini golf. Because of this, having one in your own home is considered useful by many golfers. This is especially true for beginners who want to improve their game play.

3 Advantages Of A Synthetic Putting Green

Doubles As A Landscape

If the woman of the house is not too eager about the putting green because it would take up her garden space in the backyard, you can have your putting green double as a landscape. There are companies that install ornamental plants and fountains to make it also look like a landscape. The positioning and styling of the landscape is strategically done so that you can still practice your game on your green while having space for the garden.

This will get rid of the rivalry of spouses on who will have the right to use the backyard and turn it into a garden or a putting green. Also, this will make the house much more attractive. By having a backyard that is both useful and beautiful, you will make your home even more eye-catching. This will also make your practice nicer – because of the ambiance that the flowering plants and the fountain would give on your putting green.

Easier To Install

Because a synthetic green is often manufactured according to the specifications of the buyer, it is easier to install. You will not need any gardening supplies just to install it in your backyard because the grass is synthetic. You only have to have the synthetic turf installed according to your specifications and designs. You can also install the turf on your own. Just purchase artificial turf at the store of your choice and you can easily have your own in your backyard. Better yet, buy one online.

Requires Little To No Maintenance

A synthetic green requires very little maintenance because the grass does not grow. You do not need to mow it because the grass is synthetic and will not grow even a bit. It would also never require fertilizers and other stuff that natural grass would need to stay healthy and beautiful.

There are also zero chances of getting pests because insects and pests will not get attracted on the grass that they can not eat or make as their home. Because of this, you will have less headaches.

Many people believe that owning a home putting green demands too much effort because of maintenance. This could be quite true if the one in your own home is not a synthetic one. A natural green in your backyard may take up a lot of time because it needs constant maintenance. But if your home putting green is a synthetic one, it will save you a lot of time and resources.

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Engineering Continuing Education – Benefits of Online Continuing Education Courses

Suppose in a few months you will be renewing your Professional Engineering license. Going through the checklist, you notice that you need continuing education courses. Oh no, there is not enough time left to register for a college class or find a convention or seminar in your local area. What are you going to do? What about online? Are there any websites offering engineering courses? Yes, there are. You have found several websites, but will your State Licensure Board accept these courses? And what is the difference between a Continuing Education Unit (CEU) and Professional Development Hour (PDH)?

For the most part engineers are very conservative when it comes to trying something new. Although online engineering courses have been around for more than a decade, many engineers may not think of obtaining their professional development hours through a course on the internet. There are many advantages to this form of continuing education.

If you are like me, you have paid many thousands of dollars for continuing education over the years. Conventions and seminars can cost $300 to $500 a day for registration, and then there is the cost of meals, lodging and travel expenses. Even if you are lucky and the convention is in your home town, you still will have lost time at the office. There has to be a better way to obtaining continuing education units.

Of course, you could take a continuing education course at a college or university. These classes are usually designed to appeal to a mass audience and are rarely specific enough for engineering. The better technique is to take an actually college engineering course, but that can consume a lot of time.

Since much of engineering can be observed or read, online study courses can have some major advantages over the traditional sources of continuing education.

Convenience

  • Online courses are available on you own schedule
  • Self-paced – You can learn as fast or as slow as you want
  • Does not require your physical presence at location of the seminar
  • You can study wherever you want to – At home, work, in the library
  • Courses are available 24/7
  • You can read the material online or download them for reading later

Flexibility

  • Online courses are student-centered by accommodating your preferences and needs
  • Choose instructor-led or self-study courses
  • Skip over material you already know and focus on topics you’d like to learn
  • Use the tools best suited to your learning styles

Selection

  • Courses available in all engineering disciplines, ethics, and managerial
  • Courses are available for the individual as while as the group

Cost

  • Some courses are free
  • Many courses are available in a wide range of prices
  • No travel expenses
  • No lodging expenses
  • No lost work hours

Accreditation

  • Engineering continuing education courses credit the engineer with Professional Development Hours (PDH) or Continuing Education Units (CEU)
  • Many courses are accredited, but in most states this is not a requirement
  • It is the responsibility of the engineer to ensure the course meets the state requirements

As you can see, online courses have many benefits that are well suited for the engineer. With online courses the engineer can quickly obtain the number of PDH or CEU required for licensing renewal and to gain the necessary knowledge in technical applications.

In this article we have discussed why online continuing education courses are a good benefit for the engineer. Although there are number of other sources, the benefits of online learning are far more convenient and less expensive. Online websites offer many engineering courses; technical, ethical, and managerial. For the most part these courses are acceptable to State Licensure Boards for renewing Professional Engineering licenses.

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How To Impress With Your Body Language

How we impress with our body language is not only important, but necessary … to make a good impression, do not you think so? Within the very first moment of meeting with someone, we can not help wondering about the intentions and too often – the credibility of the other person, whether we decide to strike a business deal or a relationship – or not at all! Here, the way we present ourselves, particularly the manner we communicate non-verbally in those first cruel moment of meeting someone new … could make or break, a potential business relationship.

Let it be known that there are some people who use it – not to communicate only, but also to entice and possibly seduce the objects of their dreams and desires. To be able to get the people they fancy, into their world and hold them within – never to let them go, is so challenging! Such seducers certainly know the art of body language! Am I one of them? Let me use your imagination.

Interestingly, here are some positive ways to use your body language to communicate your intentions and credibility – to your advantage, which can set you up for success any time.

  • Hold your posture – To begin with, have your back straight, but not rigid and your shoulders relaxed, so as not to look so upight.
  • Remember to greet the person you are meeting, with a firm handshake. Probably, this is one of the most important body language moves, as it sets the tone for your entire conversation.
  • Be knowledgeable of the different cultural greetings and closures, prior to your meeting.
  • Align your body with the one you are speaking to, in order to show that you are engaged and not easily distracted.
  • Lean forward to give an impression that you are focused and are really attentive.
  • Maintain good eye contact, by looking at the other person in the eye when communicating. This will show that you are interested in the conversation.
  • Monitor your voice – Do keep the tone of your voice low and do not you end every sentence as if it was a question. Learn how to pronounce your words well and clear.
  • Use your hands to gesture when the need arise whenever you are speaking, to improve your credibility with the listener. Gesturing with your hands while talking, can improve your thoughts.
  • Keep a positive head with appropriate nods and genuine smiles, to let the other person know that you do understand, agree and are listening to his or her opinions.
  • Observe the body language of the other person, as he or she may be communicating with you through it and perhaps he or she intends to conclude the conversation finally.

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Why It’s Important to Keep Up With the News

Many people neglect the news and are unaware of what is going on in the world around them. This is a large mistake however and a good understanding of current affairs is actually crucial for many reasons. Here we’ll look at just why it’s so important to follow the news and why you should look for a news blog, website or news channel to provide you with regular updates.

Firstly the news can sometimes affect you. You might not think that news is constantly about crises in other countries, or things that have happened to other people, but more likely the news reflects a policy or government decision that will be utilising your tax money and that will affect your economy. The government is designed to work for us and this is the true idea of a democracy, however it’s the press and the blogs and news channels that allow us to actually see what the government are doing and that allow for democracy to work. People fought and died for freedom of speech and the freedom of the press that comes with it, and so to turn your back on it is a serious mistake. When it comes to an election, the news through the last few years should be the main thing influencing your decision.

At the same time the news can often affect you directly. For example the recent news of the ash cloud covering the sky meant that many flights had to be cancelled or couldn’t go ahead. However only those who read a news blog or watched a news channel would have known not to go ahead and book any last minute flights. Even on a more basic level, the news often includes the weather, and this will affect whether we get wet when we head outside or remember to bring an umbrella.

The news is also very important for conversation. If something big has happened in the news then this is a sure fire way to spark up a conversation with someone where there might otherwise have been an awkward silence. At the same time in a group of people talking about the news you won’t want to be the only one who isn’t aware of what’s going on as this can make you feel very isolated and out of touch. At the same time you might lose respect from the other people who value the news and current affairs more.

Of course the news is also just interesting and while there will be a lot you’re not interested in, there will always be something that catches your attention and that is related to one of the fields you find interesting. If you like celebrities and gossip then this always finds its way on to the news, while meanwhile you’ll also likely find information about sports and cutting edge science.

If you want to stay up to date with the news but struggle to find the time, new media technologies are now allowing many new methods to get quick and specific news updates meaning there’s really no excuse left for not knowing what’s going on in the world.

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Ways to Make Your Penis Rock Hard Without Drugs

A lot of men struggle to achieve or maintain a rock solid erection. This condition is defined as erectile dysfunction and can leave a man incapable of having satisfactory intercourse with a woman.

Erectile dysfunction is more common than you think. In US alone, 18 million men over the age of 20, suffer with erectile dysfunction to some degree.

Viagra is the most anti impotence drug that was launched almost two decades back. It’s apt to say that it completely changed the face of male enhancement industry. The active ingredient in Viagra is sildenafil citrate that can help you attain a rock solid erection by increasing nitric oxide production in your body.

Nitric oxide helps blood vessels relax and dilate so that more blood can flow into the erectile tissue and make your penis hard and rigid in the process.

It is usually taken 30-60 minutes before having sex.

Though Viagra and other similar drugs Cialis and Levitra are quite effective, they have become infamous for their adverse side effects.

Some of the side effects of such drugs include severe headache, upset stomach and loose stools, vision and hearing changes, heart strokes and even premature death. Such drugs are extremely dangerous for men who have a heart condition or suffer with high blood pressure.

However, these drugs are not the only way to get harder erections.

Here are some simple and easy ways to make your penis rock hard without ever using drugs:

1. Exercise

Exercise is a great way to increase blood circulation in your body. It is highly effective in reducing cholesterol too. A regular workout can reduce excess fat and unclog arteries to boost blood circulation.

Your waistline is a typical indicator of how much body fat your carry in your body. Men whose waist is more than 34 inches, are more prone to erectile dysfunction. Thus, if your waist is more than 34 inches, it’s time to hit the gym.

Apart from this, Jelqs are some penis exercises that are highly effective in increasing blood flow to your penis. These exercises are very simple to perform and can also help increase the size of your penis.

A jelq is performed by gripping the base of your penis between thumb and index finger of your one hand and running it down the length of the shaft slowly. Typically, this movement should take around two seconds.

A typical jelq routine takes around 15-20 minutes a day. There are a lot of free exercise videos that you can download online to find out how Jelqs are performed.

2. Try Some Herbs

Certain herbs are excellent for improving sexual function in men. Such herbs have been used for hundreds of years in China and India for safe and effective male enhancement.

It’s not surprising that both these countries have such a large population.

Some of the most effective herbs include ginseng, ginkgo biloba, muira pauma, tribulus terrestris, tongat ali or long jack, catuaba, hawthorn, shilajit, etc.

These herbs boost blood flow to the penis without affecting your blood pressure. Yet another benefit is that they can help boost your staying power. However, this is a benefit that comes with regular use.

3. Try Natural Penis Pills

Though it is not possible to have all the above mentioned herbs individually, you can try herbal penis pills that contain herbal extracts in the right proportion so that you can achieve rock solid erections.

Such pills also help boost testosterone production in your body. This helps increasing your semen production and sperm count too.

Such pills are a great option to treat erectile dysfunction, whether it results from physical or emotional issues.

Top of the line pills do not have negative side effects and come with rare ingredients like pomegranate ellagic acid and Bioperine to ensure faster results.

So, if you want to get instant and harder erections, check out the most powerful penis pills that have been getting outstanding user reviews.

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Creative Financing For Investment Properties

There are many directions to look in when it comes time to finance the investment for the property you want to purchase. After you have spent time researching what type of investment property is going to meet your needs the best, you may need to come up with some creative alternatives to make the purchase happen.

One of the most well known is “zero down” properties. When looking for these types of investments, it will be important to investigate just where the money is coming from. The most logical and reliable agreements will come from those who want to develop the property. A good zero down property will have a couple of common factors. The developer will cover the closing costs first of all, and within a two year span will be the taxes on the property, and the fees incurred with managing the property itself.

Another creative way to find financing is to include a partner into your investment plans. Believe it or not, there are those in the world who have the money, but are not sure just what to invest it in. That is where you come in with a solid real estate investment plan. Whether the partner is silent, or if they want to play a more vocal role in the partnership, do make sure that all of the financing is done by contract. Bringing in a legal professional will make sure that all parties get what they want out of the partnership to get the most out of investing with real estate.

More and more lenders are willing to help out real estate investors who are looking to purchase houses, refurbish them, and put them back out on the market. One creative way to check out which institutions to look at would be to find a clump of homes which are financed by the lenders, and pick a home or two right around the area in need of some refurbishment. The lenders will be happy to work with someone who is going to bring up the area’s property value as a whole.

No matter which way you plan to go, the basic premise of creative financing will include not using your own money. Seek other routes when looking to begin your real estate property investments.

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History of Ear Gauging in Tribal Civilizations

A study of the history of ear gauging indicates the practice to be as old as recorded human history. For males, this form of ear piercing has been a symbol of status, while for women, in addition to being used as means of bodily decoration, it has also been employed to signify the attainment of womanhood.

Ear gauging, which is also referred to as ear stretching, is the stretching of ear lobe piercings to larger diameters than that of the original piercing. It is a form of body enhancement or beautification that many young western people adopt to look ‘different’ from the usual crowd. However, this is not a modern form of body piercing, since it has been around for as long as archaeological records exist.

In many cases, ear gauging has been used historically to indicate the standing of members of a specific tribe, and in many respects this is still the situation today. Stretched piercings have been, and still are, a reflection on the individual’s sexual capability and also their superiority over other males in the tribe. The larger the stretching, the more important the individual.

Otzi the Iceman is a prime example of mummies known to have stretched ears. This is the earliest known example of ear gauging, Otzi having 7-11 mm ear piercings during 3300 BC. It has been suggested that the stretching of the ears noted in depictions of Siddhartha Gautama, better known as Buddha, may have been caused by the weight of the gold jewelry he wore, but this is mere supposition.

It is supported, however, by the fact that the Masai tribe of Kenya and the Lahu and Karen-Paduang people of Thailand use this ‘gravity’ technique to stretch their piercings. Let us have a look at the ear gauging practices used today by various cultures.

A. Mursi Tribal Women

The Mursi is an Ethiopian tribe where the women are obliged to wear plates in their gauged ears and on their bottom lip. About a year prior to her marriage, or at about 15 years of age, a Mursi girl’s lip will be pierced by her mother and a wooden peg pushed through the incision.

Once healed, the peg is changed for a larger diameter one. Eventually, the peg is replaced by a plate of clay or wood, and this plate is successively changed for larger diameter ones until the required diameter is attained – from around 8 – 22 cm in diameter (3 – 9 inches). Once these plates have been secured, she receives a higher degree of respect than those without them, and is known as a ‘Bhansanai’.

These lip and ear plates need not be worn permanently, but are an expected adornment during special occasions such as during weddings and other celebrations, and when they serve food to men. Today, young women can generally make their own decision as to whether or not they follow this tradition.

B. The Masai People of Kenya

The practice of ear gauging has been common among Masai men and women for thousands of years. In recent years, however, most young men have not been following this custom, although you will still find many Masai women wearing ear decorations made from stones, cross-cut elephant tusks, wood and animal bones.

The original piercing is carried out using a thorn, sharpened twig or a sharp knife point. Once healed, ear gauging is then carried out by wearing increasingly heavy jewellery that pulls the lobe down and stretches the piercing. This is the traditional way of gauging ears in the more primitive cultures, although many Masai today will use proper ear gauging techniques, such as their own versions of insertion tapers or taper spikes. Beads are a common form of ornamentation, although plugs made from bone, tusks and wood are also used.

C. The African Fulani Tribe

Fulani women from Nigeria and Central Africa tend to use smaller diameter ear gauges, and decorate them using large gold domes or hoops carrying earrings. A Fulani child will have her ears pierced at around 3 years old, although they may not be stretched until she is older. The gauges used by Fulani women are relatively small compared to the Masai and Mursi, although the jewellery can be larger.

D. Asian Hill Tribes

Of the various hill tribes, the only two known to practice ear gauging are the Lahu from Thailand, and the Karen-Padaung (Longnecks) from Myanmar (Burma) and also the Phrae province in Thailand. That latter tribe are best known for their neck rings, offering the appearance of long necks, but both cultures believe the ear to be sacred and the more jewellery they can wear on the better. By gauging their ears, they are able to wear the maximum amount of jewellery they believe possible.

E. Mexican and Central American Civilizations

In Mayan and Aztec society, ear gauging was regarded as desirable for males. There are many Mayan representations of men with flares and ear plugs (ear spools) in gauged ears, and the material used was indicative of the social standing of the wearer. Jade ear plugs were worn by the higher classes, while the rest would use bone, stone, wood and other materials. In central Mexico, the craftsmanship of the Aztecs is evident in the ear gauging plugs and ornaments of gold and silver, though the lower classes would adorn their stretches earlobes with shells, copper and wood among many other imaginative materials.

Ear gauging has been carried out worldwide, and among other notable areas involved in this practice are Japan, where the Ainu used ear jewellery made from shells, bone and a ball and ring known as Ninkari. There are many other cultures worldwide where ear gauging was a part of their life, and even today many people regard ear stretching as a fashion statement and a way of expressing their own personality and individuality.

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